Pain

Cannabinoids for neuropathic pain.
Treatment options for neuropathic pain have limited efficacy and use is fraught with dose-limiting adverse effects. The endocannabinoid system has been elucidated over the last several years, demonstrating a significant interface with pain homeostasis. Exogenous cannabinoids have been demonstrated to be effective in a range of experimental neuropathic pain models, and there is mounting evidence for therapeutic use in human neuropathic pain conditions.

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Neuropathic orofacial pain: cannabinoids as a therapeutic avenue.
Neuropathic orofacial pain (NOP) exists in several forms including pathologies such as burning mouth syndrome (BMS), persistent idiopathic facial pain (PIFP), trigeminal neuralgia (TN) and postherpetic neuralgia (PHN). BMS and PIFP are classically diagnosed by excluding other facial pain syndromes... This review will investigate the potential use of cannabinoids in the treatment of symptoms associated with NOP. 

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Vanilloid TRPV1 receptor mediates the antihyperalgesic effect of the nonpsychoactive cannabinoid, cannabidiol, in a rat model of acute inflammation.
Cannabidiol (CBD), a nonpsychoactive marijuana constituent, was recently shown as an oral antihyperalgesic compound in a rat model of acute inflammation... These results demonstrate that TRPV1 receptor could be a molecular target of the CBD antihyperalgesic action.

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Cannabidiol inhibits paclitaxel-induced neuropathic pain through 5-HT(1A) receptors without diminishing nervous system function or chemotherapy efficacy.
Paclitaxel (PAC) is associated with chemotherapy-induced neuropathic pain (CIPN) that can lead to the cessation of treatment in cancer patients even in the absence of alternate therapies...Our data suggest that CBD is protective against PAC-induced neurotoxicity mediated in part by the 5-HT(1A) receptor system. Furthermore, CBD treatment was devoid of conditioned rewarding effects or cognitive impairment and did not attenuate PAC-induced inhibition of breast cancer cell viability. Hence, adjunct treatment with CBD during PAC chemotherapy may be safe and effective in the prevention or attenuation of CIPN. 

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Non-psychoactive cannabinoids modulate the descending pathway of antinociception in anaesthetized rats through several mechanisms of action.
Two non-psychoactive cannabinoids, cannabidiol (CBD) and cannabichromene (CBC), are known to modulate in vitro the activity of proteins involved in nociceptive mechanisms, including transient receptor potential (TRP) channels of vanilloid type-1 (TRPV1) and of ankyrin type-1 (TRPA1), the equilibrative nucleoside transporter and proteins facilitating endocannabinoid inactivation. Here we have tested these two cannabinoids on the activity of the descending pathway of antinociception.

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Cannabinoids suppress inflammatory and neuropathic pain by targeting α3 glycine receptors.
Cannabis extracts and synthetic cannabinoids are still widely considered illegal substances. Preclinical and clinical studies have suggested that they may result useful to treat diverse diseases, including those related with acute or chronic pain. 

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Cannabinoids in the management of difficult to treat pain.
This article reviews recent research on cannabinoid analgesia via the endocannabinoid system and non-receptor mechanisms, as well as randomized clinical trials employing cannabinoids in pain treatment...Numerous randomized clinical trials have demonstrated safety and efficacy for Sativex in central and peripheral neuropathic pain, rheumatoid arthritis and cancer pain.  

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Cannabidiol Is a Potential Therapeutic for the Affective-Motivational Dimension of Incision Pain in Rats.
Pain involves different brain regions and is critically determined by emotional processing. Among other areas, the rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC) is implicated in the processing of affective pain. Drugs that interfere with the endocannabinoid system are alternatives for the management of clinical pain.


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